Chitwan national park is Nepal's first and most famous national park is situated in the central development region which was established in 1973 and covers an area of 932sq.km in the sub tropical and and tropical low land of inner tarai region. It includes hilly areas of the siwalik-Himalayan range, covered by deciduous sal forest and is carpeted with grass. The park has three type of basic vegetations, ox bow lakes, swamps and watering holes. The national park made up of the flood plain of the Narayani, rapti and reu rivers. The park declared flora and fauna. The principal vegetation of the park consists of 70% sal forest, 7% river Rhine forest, 20% tall grassland and 3% chir pine forest. Chitwan national park is home for more then two hundred endangered one- horned rhinoceros and harbors one of the largest populations of the rare and exclusive royal Bengal tigers. besides rhinos and tigers there are 57 more mammals like elephant, gaur, sloth bear, leopard etc. There are over 80 different reptiles such as python, king cobra, gavial, marsh mugger crocodiles and scaly ant eater. The park is also consider as paradise for the bird watcher where more then 530 species of birds are recorded including cormorant, egrets, stork, geese, pitas, king fisher, woodpeckers, pintails and hornbills. The park also abundant for butter flies and moths. Chitwan national park was declared by UNESCO as a world heritage site in November 1984.
Every day tourist buses are available from kathmandu, pokhara, sunauli to chitwan. After completed 4-5 hours journey all the buses arrive at bus park place called bachhauli. It is also possible to take flight from kathmandu to bharatpur airport, duration of 25 minute which is 20 km away from main center.
From the 19th century, the valley was center for hunting trips by British and Nepali aristocrats. King George V and his son, the prince of wales, later Edward V3, never made it to kathmandu but they did fine time to slaughter wild in this forests. in 1911, they killed 39 tigers and 18 rhinos
Until the 1950s, the only settlements in the chitwan valley were scattered villages inhabited by people whose apparent immunity to malaria was rumoured to be the result of their heavy drinking. Malaria was largely controlled by liberal applications of DDT from 1954s. Land hungry people from the hills were quick to see the potential wealth of the region and much of the jungle was rapidly transformed in to farmland.
In 1973 the rhino population of chitwan was estimated to have fallen to only 100 and there were just 20 tiger left. This disastrous slide was halted when a sanctuary was established in 1964, although 22000 people were forcible removed from within its boundaries. The national park was proclaimed in 1973 and since that time the animal population has rebounded. A census conducted in 2000 found that chitwan contains 544 rhinos and an estimated 80 tiger quite. apart from 50 other soecies of mammals and over 450 different type of birds. now days the park offers one of the finest wildlife experience in Asia. You have to be extremely lucky to see one of its elusive tiger and leopards however an elephant safari is unforgettable and you are almost certain to see rhinos, various species of dear, monkey and other many different animals. the best time to visit chitwan national park is September and February when the average daily temperature is about 25 decree when ever you come you will need to pack insect repellent and pair of binoculars is invaluable. Entry fee is required RS 500 per day for foreign national visitors, RS 200 per day for SAARC nationals visitors and Rs 20 for Nepalese people.
Sauraha is just outside of the park on the northern bank of the rapti river. It lise 6km south of the tadi bazar. The setting is magnificent, even if much of the development is in appropriate and careless. it is a simple village that been overrun by a boom and bust of tourist industry. outside of the tourist enclave, however, there's still ample opportunity to observe rural life
The greatest thrill at chitwan is the traditional elephant safari in search of wildlife, seeing a rhino from atop an elephant is an experience and not be missed. The duration of elephant ride is about one and half hours. it is safest and closest option to view the flora and fauna of the park.
Jeep safari is the option to see wide range of the park. four wheels drive will drive you through the different type of vegetation.
visitors are allowed to enter the park on foot, but in order to get the most out of experience and for reasons of safety with animal, it is mandatory that you go with guide. walk which offer nothing more then a pleasant stroll. Through jungle, can be exhilarating but they are potentially dangerous if you meet a rhino. Most of lodges have their own naturalists also there are a number of independent guide
Chitwan gives you an excellent opportunity to explore the surrounding country side. Originally chitwan was dominated by tharu but over the last decade increasing number of hill people have bought up the land. many villagers are now a multicultural mixture. Tharu people have good experience to show theirs traditional way of living. This remains you many years back to human civilization. In the evening everyday they performed theirs fold dance and many other cultural programme so don't forget to visit Tharu cultural programme while you are on chitwan National Park tour